Workplan-Task2

Task 2: Further development of rolking

Aalto has researched rolking for many years, with good results. In studies of Aalto the rolking leg has been electrically actuated, which has some disadvantages such as relatively low load capacity. With hydraulically actuated leg, the main benefit is higher load capacity. Hydraulically operated leg has also some disadvantages which all are related to unideal behavior of hydraulics. Due to these disadvantages hydraulically actuated rolking leg is challenging task.

Major part of the work in Task 2 is to be performed in IHA. Recent activities at Aalto has concentrated on Thesis Research on a small electric 6-wheeled rover. The first sections below describe the state of the art, activities at Aalto, and activities in IHA.

State of the art

Aalto University Department of Automation and Systems Technology holds experience on rolking –or wheel walking- through projects with WorkPartner and Marsokhod -robots.

WorkPartner is a futuristic service robot designed for outdoor use. Its mobility is based on a hybrid locomotion system, which combines benefits of both legged and wheeled locomotion to provide at the same time good terrain negotiating capability and large velocity range. The platform has an active body joint and four legs equipped with wheels. The actuation system is fully electrical and the power system a hybrid one with batteries and 3 kW combustion engine. The locomotion system allows motion by legs only, by legs and wheels powered at the same time or by wheels only.

Marsokhod is a 6-wheeled electric rover with two extra joints that allow extension and retraction of body length thus allowing worm-like motion and wheel walking. Automatic wheel-walking sequences have been implemented and demonstrated in two Master-level studies.

Current state in GIM

Literature

Journal articles

  1. A. Halme, T. Luksch, and S. Ylönen, "Biomimicing motion control of the WorkPartner robot," Industrial Robot: An International Journal, pp. 209-217, Vol 31, Number 2, 2004.

Conference articles

  1. P. Aarnio, K. Koskinen, and S. Salmi, "Simulation of the hybtor robot," in Proc. 3rd International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots, Madrid, Spain: Professional Engineering Publishing Ltd, 2000, pp. 267-274.
  2. P. Aarnio, K. Koskinen, and S. Ylönen, "Using simulation during development of combined manipulator and hybrid locomotion platform," in Proc. FSR 2001, Espoo, Finland: 2001.
  3. P. Forsman, "Feature based registration of 3D perception data for indoor and outdoor map building," in Proc. FSR 2001, Espoo, Finland: 2001.
  4. P. Forsman and A. Halme, "Feature based registeration of range images for mapping of natural outdoor environments," in Proc. The 2nd International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Thessaloniki: IEEE, 2004, p. 8.
  5. A. Halme, K. Koskinen, V-P. Aarnio, S. Salmi, I. Leppänen, and S. Ylönen, "WorkPartner - Future Interactive Service Robot," in Proc. STeP2000 Millenium of Artificial Intelligence, Helsinki, Finland: 2000.
  6. A. Halme, I. Leppänen, S. Salmi, and S. Ylönen, "Hybrid locomotion of a wheel-legged machine," in Proc. 3rd International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots, Madrid, Spain: Professional Engineering Publishing Ltd, 2000, pp. 167-173.
  7. A. Halme, I. Leppänen, S. Ylönen, and I. Kettunen, "WorkPartner - Centaur like service robot for outdoor aplications," in Proc. FSR 2001, Espoo, Finland: 2001.
  8. A. Halme, I. Leppänen, M. Montonen, and S. Ylönen, "Robot motion by simultaneous wheel and leg propulsion," in Proc. 4th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots, Karlsruhe, Germany: Professional Engineering Publishing Ltd, 2001, pp. 1013-1020.
  9. A. Halme, J. Sievilä, I. Kauppi, and S. Ylönen, "Performing skilled work with an interactively operated service robot," in Proc. The 4th International Conference on Field and Service Robotics, Fuji, Japan: 2003.
  10. A. Halme, "Common Situation Awareness as Basis for Human-Robot Interface," in Proc. 8th International Conference on climbing and walking Robots, London: 2005, p. 16.
  11. A. Halme, I. Leppänen, and S. Salmi, "Development of WorkPartner-robot – design of actuating and motion control system," in Proc. CLAWAR´99 2nd International conference on Climbing and Walkink Robots, Portsmouth, England: 1999.
  12. M. Heikkilä, S. Terho, M. Hirsi, A. Halme, and P. Forsman, "Using Signs for Configuring Work Tasks of Service Robots," in Proc. 8th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR 2005), London: 2005.
  13. I. Leppänen, S. Salmi, and A. Halme, "WorkPartner, HUT Automation’s new hybrid walking machine," in Proc. CLAWAR’98 First international symposium, Brussels, Belgium: 1998.
  14. T. Luksch, S. Ylönen, and A. Halme, "Combined Motion Control of the Platform and the Manipulator of WorkPartner Robot," in Proc. 6th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR 2003), Catania, Italy: 2003.
  15. J. Selkäinaho, A. Halme, and J. Paanajärvi, "Navigation system of an outdoor service robot with hybrid locomotion system," in Proc. FSR 2001, Espoo, Finland: 2001.
  16. J. Selkäinaho and P. Forsman, "Navigation of an Outdoor Service Robot by Matching 2D Laser Scans," in Proc. The IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, Espoo, Finland: IEEE, 2005, p. 6.
  17. Jussi Suomela and Aarne Halme, "Cognitive human machine interface for a centauroid robot," in Proc. European Workshop on Servive & Humanoid Robots, Santorini, Greece, June 25 - 27 2001.
  18. J. Suomela and A. Halme, "Cognitive Human Machine Interface Of Workpartner Robot," in Proc. Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles 2001 Conference (IAV2001), Sapporo, Japan: 2001.
  19. J. Suomela and A. Halme, "Novel interactive control interface for centaur-like service robot," presented at Tukeva ohjelman seminaari, 2002.
  20. J. Suomela and A. Halme, "Novel Interactive Control Interface For Centaur-Like Service Robot," in Proc. 15th IFAC World Congress on Automatic Control, Barcelona, Spain: 2002.
  21. J. Suomela and A. Halme, "Human robot interaction – Case WorkPartner," in Proc. The IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Sendai, Japan: 2004, pp. 3327-3332.
  22. Petri Virekoski, Ilkka Leppänen, "Terrain-adaptive locomotion of a wheel-legged service robot using actuator-based force measurements," in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Advances in climbing and walking Robots, Singapore: CLAWAR, 2007, pp. 234-241.
  23. S. Ylönen, I. Leppänen, S. Salmi, and A. Halme, "Hybrid locomotion of the WorkPartner service robot," in Proc. FSR 2001, Espoo, Finland: 2001.
  24. S. Ylönen and A. Halme, "Further Development and Testing of the Hybrid Locomotion of WorkPartner Robot," in Proc. 5th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots, Paris, France: 2002.
  25. S. Ylönen and A. Halme, "WorkPartner - Centaur like Service Robot," in Proc. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Lausanne, Switzerland: 2002.
  26. S. Ylönen and A. Halme, "Mechatronics structure of the centaur like wheeled service robot," in Proc. 2nd IFAC Conference on Mechatronic Systems, Berkeley, California: 2002.
  27. S. Ylönen, M. Heikkilä, and P. Virekoski, "Interactions between Human and Robot – Case Study: WorkPartner-robot in the ISR 2004 Exhibition," in Proc. 7th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR 2004), Madrid: 2004.
  28. Sami Ylönen, Pekka Forsman, Aarne Halme, "Modularity in future service robots," in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Advanced Robotics, Korea: springer, 2007, 6 p.

Book articles

  1. A. Halme, "From Tele-operation to Cognition based Tele-interaction," in Telecommunication, Teleimmersion and Telexistence II, Tachi S., Ed., Ohmsha Ltd, 2005, pp. 39-61.
  2. Halme Aarne, Sievilä Jouni, Kauppi Ilkka, Ylönen Sami "Performing skilled work with an interactively operated service robot," in Field and Service Robotics, Berlin: Springer, 2006, pp. 377-384.

Activities at Aalto

Activities at Aalto has concentrated on Thesis Research on 6-wheeled planetary rover demonstration model 'Marsokhod' producing two master's Theses:

2007, Master's Thesis: Study and Implementation of Wheel Walking for a Mars Rover (Zhongliang HU)
2008, Master's Thesis: Mobility and autonomous reconfiguration of Marsokhod (Jan Philipp Hakenberg)

Activities at IHA

In development work of the hydraulically actuated rolking vehicle simulators have important role. First dynamic simulator is used to define different mechanical load variations. After that the different mechanical structure versions of the leg will be examined with dynamic simulator. When the most suitable mechanical structure is found, the control system for leg will be created with simulator. After the single leg has been realized and tested the dynamic simulator with four legs will be created. This simulator will be used as a tool to in development work for four leg control system in IHA-machine STEPS 3 and 4. To ensure appropriate contact force between driving surface and wheel, we need hybrid force-position-controller.

Expected results

The implementation of leg will be done on IHA-machine (4000 kg) at its STEP 3. A simple control system will be used in this STEP. Basically the legs will be used only to lift or lower the vehicle. Also leveling of the machine will be done in various terrain conditions.

Planned activities and publications

Time of Acticvity

Activity & Responsible persons
Publication(s) & Journal / Conference

2007-2008

A preliminary dynamic simulation model of hydraulically operated rolking leg (Personnel)

2007-2008

Activity (Personnel)
Publication (TBD)

2008-2009

A simulation study of a suitable mechanical structure for hydraulically operated rolking leg. (Personnel)

2009-2010

A preliminary control system for hydraulically operated rolking leg. Dynamic simulation model will be used as a tool in this development work. (Personnel)

2010

A prototype of the hydraulically operated rolking leg will be relized. Also the test set up for the leg will be relized. Further development of the control system of the hydraulically operated rolking leg.

2011

Development of the control system of the hydraulically operated rolking machine.

2011-2012

Prototype of the rolking machine will be constructed

2012

Prototype of the rolking machine is ready