Research plan 2008-2010

Task 1: Behaviour and usability of different power sources in mobile machines

The starting-point of the research work is to study the possible energy forms which can be used as a prime energy source for mobile machines. The evaluation of the different energy forms has to be based on the demands which environmental factors place on mobile applications. The application sets requirements for the primary energy source and, on the other hand, the energy form sets requirements for the mobile application system.

Traditionally, the prime mover energy is converted into hydraulic energy form by means of a hydraulic pump. Other possibilities are electrical and mechanical forms. In particular, the rapidlydeveloping fuel cell technology is promoting the use of the electrical form. The second main issue is to study the steady-state and dynamic behaviour of the prime movers, which can be based on one energy source or can be a hybrid solution, together with the output energy form of the unit.

The third research fi eld is the study of the behaviour of the modern diesel engine with a Common Rail injection system. By means of this kind of injection system the injection parameters can be freely adjusted. This means the electrical adjustment of injection timing and injection quantity. This kind of new concept gives opportunities to control the power consumption in varying load conditions accurately. One main goal is to produce steady-state and dynamic models of the Common Rail diesel engine. The research methods used are a literature study, modelling, simulation, and measurements.

Expected results: knowledge of the behaviour of different energy sources

Task 2: Distribution of power to modules

The distribution of power to other modules and to the actuators, which actually perform the actions, needs information about, for instance, load conditions, actuator position, and available continuous/ peak power etc. The fi rst part of the research work is to find out what information is needed and how this information can be acquired. The transmission of these data via modules is handled in the next research package. The information is partly gained by means of sensors. A survey of the sensors will be carried out, including telemetric units. Another source could be a reliable mathematical model of the system or a certain part of it. Rules concerning the distribution of power to different parts of the system have to be created. The research work also considers the issue of whether it is necessary for energy conversion between the power and other modules to be possible. The hydraulic energy form has many advantages in mobile applications and it is widely used. The dynamic behaviour of the fluid medium is an important area in fluid power systems. Research work will be focused partly on pressure oscillations in high-pressure hydraulic systems. The work itself is furthermore intended to be divided into three main parts:

  • theoretical study of the phenomena
  • measurements and experimental work
  • simulations

The other part of the research into fluid dynamics is the efficient transmission and distribution of fluid to actuators. The research methods used are a literature study, modelling, simulation, and measurements. The modelling and simulation work will be carried out by means of traditional 1-dimensional and 3-dimensional CFD calculations.

Expected results: distribution rules of power to modules

Task 3: Control of power output of the modules in varying operating conditions

The main items in this task are:

  • control of the Common Rail diesel engine
  • control of a fuel cell system and the electric buffers needed
  • control of other prime movers
  • control of the power consumption of the other modules
  • control of the power of the whole mobile machine

The power consumption control system will be divided into two main parts, control of the whole system (upper level control) and individual module control. The upper level control is responsible for the power consumption of the whole machine and it is the master of the individual module controllers. The appropriate results need modelling and measurement work with individual modules and also the power module. The research methods used are a literature study, modelling, simulation, and measurements. The modelling and simulation work will be carried out by means of traditional 1-dimensional and 3-dimensional CFD calculations.

Expected results: new power control system for the mobile machine

Task 4: Power consumption effi ciency of the system

The research work of this task uses the results of the previous three tasks. The main purpose is to improve the effi ciency of the mobile machine. The research work will be carried out by means of the following steps:

  • using steady-state and dynamic models of the Common Rail diesel engine to improve the control and effi cient use of the engine
  • using steady-state and dynamic models of individual modules to improve the control and effi cient use of these
  • measurement studies of different modules
  • optimization of power consumption by means of control and also by means of intelligent design and development work which will be generated during the process of all the research packages

Expected results: new methods to optimize the power consumption o fan intelligent machine

Task 5: The compound of different energy/power sources for hybrid solutions

The last research item will be the future compounding of different energy sources for a hybrid solution. During the research process a study of the possibilities of compounding different energy forms will be carried out. The former research results will provide a solution as to how and what to compound in the future. The last matter will then be to compound the most suitable energy forms together.

Expected results: possible a new innovative hybrid solution